Vision and Development: What’s Old is New Again Within Vision Therapy Part II

Part II

In “What’s Old is New Again Part I,” I chronicled the main areas that are important in visual development and perceptual assessment of children. The following should be considered during your vision therapy and perceptual workup:

  • Perceptual Speed
  • Motor Skills
  • Visual Form Perception/Recognition
  • Auditory Perception/Processing/Memory
  • Visual Memory
  • Visual Motor Integration
  • Laterality/Directionality

Below you will find a list of tests that I have used in many of my vision therapy and perceptual work-ups.

Note: This is just the tip of the iceberg in regards to different vision therapy and perceptual tests that are available to assess visual perceptual skills!

  • Perceptual Speed:
    • PMA Perceptual Speed Test: this is a pencil and paper test that tests the patient’s ability to ‘ rapidly perceive subtle differences in similar forms.’  It has two different levels with a 5 minute time limit.
    • PTS II Tachistoscope: you can find the diagnostic testing through Home Therapy Solutions.
  • Motor Skills: Oculomotor Skills 
    • Developmental Eye Movement Test
    • Visagraph/ReadAlyzer
  • Visual Motor Integration
    • Beery VMI
    • Wold Sentence Copying Test
Check out W.C. Maples paper on the improved normative values for the Wold Sentence Copy Test.
  • Visual Form Perception/Recognition
    • Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (TVPS):  covers many different areas of visual perceptual testing in one succinct test. It includes testing for the following areas that are critical within your vision therapy and visual perceptual workup:
      • visual discrimination
      • memory (simultaneous/sequential)
      • spatial relations
      • form constancy
      • figure/ground
      • visual closure
  • Auditory Perception/Processing/Memory
    • Birch-Belmon Auditory-Visual Integration (AVIT) test cards: this test requires the provider to tap out a sequence and the patient has to visualize the auditory sequence and pick out the pattern.
  • Visual Memory:
    • PTS II (again): Tachistocope (Simultaneous Visual Memory) & Visual Span (Sequential Visual Memory)
  • Laterality/Directionality: 
    • Piaget’s L/R Awareness
    • Jordan Reversals
    • Gardner Reversal Frequency Test
A few things about vision therapy and perceptual work-ups:

  • This testing is NEVER covered by insurance; make sure you bill the patient appropriately for your time.
  • Set aside approximately 1-1.5 hours for the testing.
  • Keep the room quiet and free of distractions, sometimes that even means removing the parents from the room!
  • Consider writing a full report at the end detailing all of your findings to be shared with other professionals (OT/ST/School/PCP).

Check out these COVD Resources:

  • Learn what COVD has to offer students and residents!
  • Sign up for your FREE COVD membership here!
  • Already a member of COVD? Access programs and benefits here.
  • Come experience the ‘COVD Family’ in person this April–Travel Grants available!

About Miki Lyn DAngelo

Miki Lyn DAngelo
Miki Lyn D’Angelo, O.D. graduated with honors from the SUNY College of Optometry in New York, receiving the VSP Excellence in Primary Care and Excellence in Vision Therapy awards. She then continued her education by completing a residency in vision therapy and rehabilitation with Dr. Barry Tannen, OD. She has extensive experience in family eye care with a specialty and passion for pediatrics, vision training and neuro-rehabilitation with traumatic brain injury patients. She recently just opened a private practice cold with a partner on the Eastern End of Long Island. In her spare time she loves cooking and working on the farm with her fiancé.

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